Background, Geographic Area and Location: Moulvibazar was one of the sub-divisions of former Sylhet zila. It is up-graded to a zila in 1984. It is generally believed that there lived a man named Maulvi Qudratullah who became prominent for social work. He set up a bazar at the present place of the zila headquarters which was named as Maulavibazar after his death. The zila might have derived its name from the name of that bazar. The zila is bounded on the north by Sylhet zila, on the east by India, on the south by India and on the west by Habiganj Zila. The total area of the zila is 2799.38 sq. km. (1080.00 sq. miles) of which 310.41 sq. km. (49.85 sq. miles) is under forest. The zila lies between 24º 08' and 24º 29' north latitudes and between 91º 36' and 92º 17' east longitudes.
Annual Average Temperature: Maximum 33.2°C, minimum 13.6°C; annual rainfall 3334 mm. The total forest area is 413.65 sq km (about 15% of the total area of the zila); noted forest ranges are Patharia, Sanrer Gaz or Longla, Rajkandi and Vanugachh.
Maulvi Bazar (Town) stands on the bank of the River Manu. Maulbviazar Municipality was established in 1930. The town has one Circuit House and one Rest House. Pashchim Bazar and Chowmuhana are the main commercial centres.
Administration: Maulvi Bazar subdivision was established in 1960 and was turned into a zila in 1984. The zila consists of 7 upazilas, 67 unions, 917 mauzas, 2134 villages, 5 paurashavas, 45 wards and 140 mahallas. The upazilas are BARLEKHA, KAMALGANJ, KULAURA, MAULVI BAZAR SADAR, RAJNAGAR, SREEMANGAL and JURI.
Archaeological Heritage and Relics: Khoja Mosque of Laghati village in Dasher Bazar (Barlekha, 16th century), Madhab Mandir located near the Madhabkunda water fall, Rangirkul Viddyashram (established in the first quarter of 19th century, Kulaura upazila), Nawab Bari of Pritthim Pasha (first quarter of 18th century), Khoja Mosque (14th century, Goiyghar), the temple of Agnian Thakur, Nirmmai Shib-Bari (1454, Gaiyebi Eter Masjid at the premises of the tomb of Kazi Khandker (R), Persian manuscripts of Firoz Shah Tuglak's period (1330 AD), statue of Ananta Naraiyan (11th century, preserved in the Calcutta Museum).
Historical Events: A battle between the great Pathan warrior Khawasa Osman and Raja Subidha Narayan was fought in 1595 at Rajnagar. During the SEPOY REVOLT, in 1857 some 300 sepoys looted the Chittagong Treasury and took shelter to Gaus Ali Khan, zamindar of Pritthim Pasha. The physiography of the region was seriously changed due to the earthquake of 12 July 1897. In 1921 Deshbandhu Chittaranjan Das, Maulana Hossain Ahmed Madani and Sarojani Naidu attended the Khilafat Conference and inspired people to join the anti British movement. At that time, Purnendu Kishore Sengupta established the Viddia Aashram at Rangirkul of Kulaura. Beside these, the NANKAR MOVEMENT in 1931-32 and Haor Karaiya Movement in 1968-69 are noted historical events of Maulvi Bazar. A movement, known as Vanubal Peasant Movement, lead by Panchanan Singh, Kasem Ali, Baikuntha Shawrma and Themba Singh was occurred in 1307 BS. During the WAR OF LIBERATION in 1971 many sanguinary battles took place at Shamshernagar, Sherpur and other places. Martyr Birsrestha Sipoy MOHAMMAD HAMIDUR RAHMAN was killed at village Aambasa (a border-side village of Kamalganj).
Marks of War of Liberation: Mass killing site 6, mass grave 9, memorial 6; North Bharaura (Sreemangal), Kulaura Hospital and Nabinchandra High School were used as torturing centres.
Ethnic Nationals: Manipuri, Khasi, Tripura, Halam; of these group have their own languages.
Many people of this zila are working in UK, USA, Middle East and other countries of the world.
Main Crops: Aush, aman and boro paddy, arum, til (sesame), tea, rubber, betel leaf, betel nut.
Main Fruits: Pineapple, jackfruit, litchi, lemon, orange, shaddock (Jambura / Batabi Lebu), satkara, kamranga.
Mineral Resources: COAL, GLASS SAND and LIGNITE have been found in Maulvi Bazar and Patharia. There is possibility of exploring petroleum and NATURAL GAS. Exploitation of natural gas is very much hampered due to the BLOWOUTS in Magurchhara Gas Field.
Main Exports: TEA, vegetables, satkara, lemon, naga chilli, GLASS SAND.